NUTRITIONAL SPECIFICS - Vitamins, Minerals and Amino Acids
“Understanding What They Do”
Years of extensive scientific research has shown the importance of consuming a combination of protein and carbohydrates in restoring the body after exercise or strenuous sports activity and that replenishing the body’s minerals and electrolytes lost through these strenuous activities is also paramount for recovery. Science has shown how minerals and electrolytes combined with carbohydrates and protein are far more effective for rehydrating the body and replenishing vital glycogen stores for recover and muscle repair than simple water or electrolytes and carbohydrates drink that do not contain protein. In addition to a balanced ration of electrolytes, the other essential nutrient provided in H2O Overdrive are formulated into a precision matrix to support physiological mechanisms and functions necessary for optimal nutrient uptake and transmission as well as drive intracellular hydration to support energy, stamina, muscle functions and recovery.
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(Ascorbic acid) plays an important role in the utilization of the amino acids that are essential in muscular growth and development. Vitamin C is also essential in the formation of collagen and other fibrous tissue. Collagen is the main supportive protein of skin, tendon, teeth, bone, cartilage and connective tissue. Vitamin C speeds the repair of broken down tissue, supporting faster recuperation of the muscle fiber and supportive tissue.
(Pantothenic acid) is known as an essential co-enzyme for many if not all biochemical reactions involving amino acids (the building blocks of protein). Vitamin B6 is essential in the body’s utilization of fats and carbohydrates. Without B6, energy cannot be produced in the body’s cells. B6 is involved in more bodily functions than any other single nutrient. It affects both mental and physical health
(Niacin) is also of major importance is assisting in cellular respiration and in the cells utilization of nutrients. Niacin also acts as a mild vasodilator, which means it increases the diameter of the blood vessels and increases the blood flow. B3 aids in proper circulation and assists in the function of the nervous system. Vitamin B3 is also essential for the utilization of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.
(Pyridoxine) performs a wide variety of functions in your body and is essential for your good health and is needed for more than 100 enzymes involved in protein metabolism. It is essential for red blood cell metabolism and also helps maintain your blood glucose (blood sugar level).
Vitamin A acts as an antioxidant, and is essential in protein utilization as protein cannot be utilized by the body without vitamin A.
Vitamin D acts much like a hormone, in so much as it is directly involved in regulating the function of specific organs. It is important in the function of the thyroid and pituitary glands, with one of its most vital and primary functions being to enhance intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, which are very important minerals.
Vitamin E is a fat soluble vitamin, which research has indicated as a powerful antioxidant that is important in the integrity of muscle tissue.
(Riboflavin) is essential for cellular respiration and is vital for the utilization of protein, fats and carbohydrates by the body.
(Thiamine) is one of the co-enzymes that help keep your energy levels high and is needed for normal muscle tone and function as well as being essential in carbohydrate metabolism, circulation and blood formation.
(Folic acid) is also known as folate, it is necessary for the synthesis of RNA and DNA, which are responsible for cell reproduction and formation. Folic acid is needed for energy production and the formation of red blood cells and is actively involved in protein synthesis.
(Cyanocobalamin) is necessary for proper digestion, protein synthesis, the utilization of carbohydrates and fats as well as it assists in cellular production and cellular longevity.
Calcium is vital in the formation and maintenance of our bones and is very important in the maintenance of a regular heartbeat and nerve impulses, it is also essential to muscle growth and contraction and is necessary for the prevention of muscle cramps and is an essential mineral in the clotting of blood.
Sodium is vital in the utilization of nutrients and cellular metabolism. It is necessary for the maintenance of proper blood pH, and proper water balance in the body. Sodium is vital in the control of muscle cramps and spasms. It is one of the vital nutrients (electrolytes) lost during exercise and strenuous workloads through sweat.
Potassium is one of the most abundant minerals in the human body. Many cellular enzyme systems rely on potassium. Muscular contraction is one of the most vital. Potassium is necessary for a normal heart rhythm and stable blood pressure. Potassium is also another vital nutrient (electrolyte) that is lost through sweat during exercise or sports.
Magnesium is needed for almost all cellular chemical reactions; this mineral is vital for regulating cell metabolism and is vital to enzyme activity. Your muscles require a correct balance of magnesium in order to function properly.
Zinc is an important co factor in at least 45 different enzyme systems. To athletes one of the most important of these systems is protein synthesis. Zinc is necessary for cell growth and rapid proliferation. High protein diets and increased muscle workload increase the body’s need for zinc.
Copper is essential in the formation of red blood cells, bone, hemoglobin and elastin and is instrumental in the healing process and in energy production.
Biotin is essential for the synthesis of proteins and fatty acids and in the metabolism of carbohydrates.
Iodine is a trace mineral that plays an important role in good health; in its formation with thyroxine (a thyroid hormone) it regulates the body’s basal metabolic rate (BMR). Iodine also plays an important role in the metabolism of excess fat.
Manganese is essential for strong connective tissue and is needed for fat and protein metabolism, as well as regulation of your blood sugar (blood glucose) levels and in energy production.
Chromium is necessary for the utilization of protein and in nutrient transmission and is involved in the metabolism of glucose and is needed in the production of energy.
Selenium is a very powerful antioxidant that prevents the formation of free radicals, which can cause damage to the body. Selenium also holds an essential role in maintaining muscle integrity.
Molybdenum is essential to our well-being; however it is a very rare trace mineral that is necessary for nitrogen (protein) metabolism and it also promotes normal cellular function.
Taurine is the abundant sulfur-containing β-amino acid in brain where it exerts a neuroprotective effect, it is an L-chain amino acid that is essential as a major building block for all proteins in the body – it is the principle free intracellular (inside the cells) amino acid in human and animal tissues – found in extremely high amounts in the brain and in myocardium, skeletal and smooth muscle. Taurine besides its use in cognitive response and mental alertness has extreme anti-oxidant activity. If you understand physiology you will understand that is one of the primary reasons it is in our formulation, as one if its most vital functions is its ability to scavenge the reactive oxygen species hypochlorite – which is generated in neutrophils (a type of white blood cell) during respiratory burst activity (which is what happens during exercise and strenuous activity). This scavenging activity protects the body against collateral tissue damage and helps resist oxidative stress related damage as well by protecting our body’s white blood cells.
Research has shown its role in elevating mood, mental alertness, reaction time as well as its importance in osmoregulation (the balancing of water and mineral salts in the blood). It is also necessary for the proper digestion of food and in the absorption of vitamins and plays a vital role in the digestion of fat. Additionally, taurine is a very it is known that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) mediates taurine transport, the regulation of taurine transport have not been clarified yet. So to suggest any different is irresponsible and inaccurate.
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Arginine is an essential L-chain amino acid that helps the body retain more nitrogen – and nitrogen plays a vital role in muscle synthesis. Arginine has also shown substantial support of NOS (nitric oxide synthase) the body’s natural healing and recovery process.
Glycine is an L-chain amino that is the third amino acid in the chain of formation for glutathione. Glycine retards muscle degeneration by supplying additional creatine to the muscles.
Branch Chain Amino Acids are the essential amino acids Leucine, Isoleucine and Valine and research has shown their importance in protecting the muscles through prolonged workouts or strenuous workloads as well as their role in protein synthesis, protecting against muscle protein degradation and in supporting cognitive response and mental alertness.
Leucine is an essential amino acid that lowers elevated blood sugar levels and aids in the healing of bones, skin, muscle fiber and tissue. Leucine comprises eight percent of all body proteins. It stimulates protein synthesis and insulin secretion from the pancreas (which in turn stimulates the entrance of amino acids into the muscle tissue).
is an essential amino acid that is needed for hemoglobin formation and also assists in stabilizing and regulating blood sugar and energy levels.
is an essential L-chain amino acid that is essential for the body’s hydrogen and nitrogen balances. It is vital for proper muscle metabolism and for proper tissue repair and growth.
Betaine is necessary for adequate absorption of protein, calcium, vitamin B12 and also plays an important role in the health of the cardiovascular system.
Choline is an important vitamin for cognitive clarity and is essential for the maintenance of a sharp, alert mind and memory. Choline is also important in supporting the reduction of body fat.
Inositol like choline is another B complex factor and supports thermogenesis, the body’s own natural fat burning process.
Caffeine has many specific benefits for various types of athletics, our focus is on enhanced physical and mental performance. Research has indicated that caffeine can improve the endurance in sports like cycling, running, and other endurance events. Caffeine has also shown to decrease fatigue and increase mental acuity. Some may question the use of caffeine in energy / hydration beverages or not fully understand the rational for including it as an ingredient in H2O Overdrive™.
Though this subject is less controversial among professional athletes it has been aired in the public forum and to that point we direct your attention to specific research that has established caffeine’s place and role in athletics, energy and performance. Glycogen is the principle fuel for muscles, but fat is the most abundant resource that the body can use for energy, however it is not the “first choice” the body makes in selecting a fuel source – wherein caffeine, when it is consumed – the caffeine enters the body and forces the working muscles to utilize as much fat as possible thereby delaying the immediate depletion of glycogen – which allows for better endurance (hence – longer term energy).
Scientific studies have shown that caffeine use before or during exercise can reduce the loss of glycogen by fifty percent. Additional studies have shown that consuming caffeine can actual increase the total “output” by as much as 7%. One such study on 9 trained athletes performing a 2 hour endurance test cycling showed that by consuming caffeine that athletes were able to increase their total output during the duration of the test supporting the positive physiological impact of using caffeine in endurance activities.
Further studies indicate the positive effects of caffeine on mental focus through caffeine’s stimulation of the central nervous system. Keeping in perspective that H2O Overdrive™ contains only as much caffeine as a single cup of coffee – in a precision balance to the other nutrients in our formulation, you can more easily see the reason, application and rational for caffeine in our formula. Whereas other products contain more massive amounts of caffeine which can cause the “talked about” adverse and unwanted effects. This underscores the importance of a balanced and well research formula and an understanding of human performance and physiology in seeking out the optimal in hydration and rehydration drinks.
Reference Studies include:
Effects of Ingesting Protein with Various Forms of Carbohydrates Following Resistance Exercise – Kreider, et al.J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2007 Nov; 12 (4):18
Effects of Liquid Carbohydrate/Essential Amino Acid Ingestion On Acute Hormone Response – Bird, et al. Nutrition 2006 April; 22 (4):367-75
Influence of Differing Macronutrient Intakes on Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis After Resistance Exercise – Roy et al. J Appl Physiol 1998 Mar; 84 (3):890-6
Postexercise Protein-Carbohydrate Supplements Increase Glycogen in Men and Women – Tarnopolsky et al. J Appl Physiol 1997 Dec; 83(6):1877-83
Carbohydrate-Protein Complex Increases the Rate of Muscle Glycogen Storage After Exercise – Zawadzki et al. J Appl Physiol 1992 ; 72:1854-1859
Passage of taurine into adult mammalian brain. Urquhart N, Perry TL, Hansen S, Kennedy J. Journal of Neurochemistry 1974 May;22(5):871-2.
Sodium- and chloride-dependent transport of taurine at the blood-brain barrier. Tsuji A, Tamai I. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1996;403:385-91.
The effects of systemically administered taurine and N-pivaloyltaurine on striatal extracellular dopamine and taurine in freely moving rats. Salimäki J, Scriba G, Piepponen TP, Rautolahti N, Ahtee L. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology 2003 Aug;368(2):134-41